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This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2, low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all three ages.
Cross-lagged path analyses indicated that spanking but not verbal punishment at age 1 predicted child aggressive behavior problems at age 2 and lower Bayley mental development scores at age 3. Neither child aggressive behavior problems nor Bayley scores predicted later spanking or verbal punishment. There is much less agreement about parental discipline, however. This question requires further research, especially with respect to spanking during toddlerhood ages 1 to 3.
Verbal punishment, defined for the purposes of this study as scolding, yelling, or derogating, is another common type of parental discipline that requires further research with toddlers.
Drawing on ecological and transactional theories of child development, in this study we examine the a prevalence, b predictors, and c outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in a large sample of low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Studies to date have indicated that among U. Verbal punishment is also quite common, although prevalence rates vary depending on whether they are based on parental reports or observation.
The extant literature also indicates racial and ethnic group differences in spanking and verbal punishment. Findings on the spanking of Latino toddlers have been inconsistent, however. Two other studies of toddlers did not find such differences Regalado et al. In sum, the literature to date has found both spanking and verbal punishment to be quite prevalent among parents of toddlers, with African American parents of toddlers spanking more than their White counterparts.