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It had an estimated population of 2. The city is one of the ports from which the fictional Sinbad the Sailor journeyed. It played an important role in early Islamic history and was built in The city was called by many names throughout its history, Basrah being the most common.
Others have argued that the name is derived from the Aramaic word basratha , meaning "place of huts, settlement". The city was founded at the beginning of the Islamic era in and began as a garrison encampment for Arab tribesmen constituting the armies of the Rashid Caliph Umar. A tell a few kilometres south of the present city, still marks the original site which was a military site.
In Umar established this encampment as a city with five districts, and appointed Abu Musa al-Ash'ari as its first governor. The city was built in a circular plan according to the Partho-Sasanian architecture. In , Uthman was murdered and Ali was appointed Caliph. These men held the city for Ali until the latter's death in The Sufyanids held Basra until Yazid I 's death in Ibn al-Harith spent his year in office trying to put down Nafi' ibn al-Azraq's Kharijite uprising in Khuzestan.
In the s, Basra fell to as-Saffah of the Abbasid Caliphate. During the time of the Abbasids, Basra became an intellectual centre and home to the elite Basra School of Grammar, the rival and sister school of the Kufa School of Grammar. The Zanj Rebellion by the agricultural slaves of the lowlands affected the area. In , the Zanj sacked Basra. From to , a Buyid dynasty ruled Baghdad and most of Iraq. Abu al Qasim al-Baridis, who still controlled Basra and Wasit , were defeated and their lands taken by the Buyids in Sanad al-Dawla al-Habashi ca.
The Great Friday Mosque was constructed in Basra. In , Imad ad-Din Zengi received Basra as a fief. A map "on the eve of the Mongol invasions" shows the Abbasid Caliphate as ruling lower Iraq and, presumably, Basra. By some accounts, Basra capitulated to the Mongols to avoid a massacre. The Mamluk Bahri dynasty map — shows Basra as being under their area of control, and the Mongol Dominions map — shows Basra as being under their control.